History about Ghana in Africa
Evidence shows people lived in Ghana starting around 1500 BC. No evidence exists to interface those occupants with the cutting edge populace of Ghana. The Dagomba are accepted to be the primary pioneers and were set up by 1210 AD before other ethnic gatherings showed up.
The Empire of Ashanti is a piece of cutting edge Ghana. This was one of the most compelling states before imperialism. Akan vagrants established a few countries when they moved south. These incorporated the Bono, which is known as the Brong-Ahafo area. The greater part of southern Ghana was a piece of the Empire of the Ashanti by the sixteenth century.
The Ashanti were a free system. In the end, they turned into a unified realm. At its pinnacle, in some cases, the Ashanti could carry 500,000 soldiers to the war zone. Around 1500 AD, Ga built up a viable country. The Dagomba, Mamprusi, and Gonja battled for power during the 1620s.
Contact with the Portuguese started in the fifteenth century and concentrated on gold. The primary city wherein the Portuguese landed was a piece of the Fante country state. The Portuguese named the spot Elmina, signifying “the mine” in Portuguese. Portugal’s King John II dispatched Diogo d’Azambuja to build Elmina Castle. This was finished in three years and was worked to look for ivory, slaves, and gold.
The Dutch assembled strongholds at Kormantsi and Komenda by 1548. They took Olnini Castle from Portugal in 1617 and later Axim in 1642. By the mid-seventeenth century different merchants from Europe showed up, generally English, Swedes, and Danes. The British named it the Gold Coast since they were intrigued by the region’s gold. The French were intrigued by the beachfront people groups’ knickknacks and considered it the Ivory Coast.
The Europeans worked more than 30 posts and mansions. Such huge numbers of Europeans went to the region and kicked the bucket of tropical infections it was known as “The White Man’s Grave.” The British made the territory a protectorate after the Dutch pulled back in 1874. After Britain completely vanquished the region in 1896, the domain, except for the Volta Region, was known as the Gold Coast.
Wars were visited between European forces and the zone’s country states. These incorporated the 1806 Ashanti-Fante War. The Ashanti’s battle against the British finished with the Third Ashanti-British War in 1901. De-colonization developments expanded after World War II. The United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) was shaped in 1947 and called for self-government.
Mobs expanded in 1948 and the UGCC individuals were captured. These incorporated the future Prime Minister and President, Kwame Nkrumah. He shaped the Conventions People’s Party (CPP) to push for more active self-government. He increased working and lower class support through his crusade.
Nkrumah was discharged and selected the Leader of Government Business after he won a larger part of seats in the Legislative Assembly in 1952. On March 6, 1957, he proclaimed Ghana free after dealings with Britain.
The Ghana flag in 1957, planned by Theodosia Salome, has red, gold, and green hues with a dark star. The red represents the carnage for autonomy, gold Ghana’s minerals, the green it’s farming, and the star is the African opportunity image.
Ghana turned into the principal sub-Saharan nation to pick up freedom. Nkrumah was the principal Prime Minister and later became President. He longed for an assembled Africa and was the main head to advance Pan-Africanism. He joined the thoughts of Marcus Garvey’s “Back to Africa” development and W.E.B. Du Bois into present-day Ghana. This prompted Ghana’s thoughts of opportunity and correspondence for all paying little mind to ethnic gathering, religion, or statement of faith.
While solidarity was not understood, Nkrumah was a piece of the Organization of African Unity’s development. In 2002, this turned into the African Union. Ghanaians praised his accomplishments during his Centenary birthday, which turned into an open occasion. In 1966, Nkrumah’s administration was ousted in an upset while he was abroad. Proof has demonstrated the U.S. CIA had an impact in the overthrow.
There was a progression of extra upsets somewhere in the range of 1966 and 1981. In 1981, Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings picked up power and finished the example. Ideological groups were prohibited and the constitution suspended. The economy went into decay and Ghanaians relocated to different nations. Most went to Nigeria, however that administration expelled roughly one million back to Ghana in 1983.
Rawlings negotiated with the IMF for a basic change and changed financial arrangements, which prompted a recuperation. Another constitution was set up in 1992 that accommodated different gatherings. Rawlings was chosen president and reappointed in 1996. He was illegal from running for a third term by the constitution, so his gathering selected John Atta Mills, his VP, to run. John Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party beat him to become president.
John Atta MILLS won the 2008 presidential political decision and took over as head of state, however, he kicked the bucket in July 2012 and was unavoidably prevailing by his VP John Dramani MAHAMA, who accordingly won the December 2012 presidential political decision and in 2016 Nana Akuffo Addo won the 2016 presidential political decision.
Ghana has experienced issues with its burdening set up just as the salary of its laborers since 2008. Security issues have likewise diminished the nation’s riches. This exchange of intensity through races set Ghana’s status as a steady majority rule government.
Regions of Ghana in Africa
Ghana’s 16 administrative regions and their capitals are;
- Oti Region – Dambai
- Bono East Region – Techiman
- Ahafo Region – Goaso
- Bono Region – Sunyani
- North East Region – Nalerigu
- Savannah Region – Damango
- Western North Region- Sefwi Wiawso
- Western Region – Sekondi
- Volta Region – Ho
- Greater Accra Region – Accra
- Eastern Region – Koforidua
- Ashanti Region – Kumasi
- Central Region – Cape Coast
- Northern Region – Tamale
- Upper East Region – Bolgatanga
- Upper West Region – Wa
At independence, Ghana became a parliamentary democracy. This was followed by alternating civilian and military governments. In 1993, the military government ended and the Fourth Republic began. Power is divided between the Parliament, President, Cabinet, Council of State, and the judiciary. There is universal suffrage, but the legislature is poorly apportioned.
Ghana’s legal system derives from common law, the constitution, and customary law. The highest court is the Supreme Court of Ghana, followed by the Courts of Appeal, and the High Courts of Justice. Courts have been independent under the Fourth Republic. Lower courts are being redefined.
Politics of Ghana in Africa
In 1992, political parties became legal after ten years of being banned. While there are numerous parties, the main ones are the National Democratic Congress, the New Patriotic Party, The People’s National Convention, and the Convention People’s Party. Currently, Ghana is been ruled by the New Patriotic Party headed his excellency Akuffo Addo.
Foreign Relations of Ghana in Africa
Pan-Africanism and nonalignment have been major goals since independence. Ghana favors international cooperation and is part of the African Union and the United Nations.
Diplomats from Ghana hold many international posts, such as Late Kofi Annan, former U.N. Secretary-General. Judge Akua Kuenyehia of the International Criminal Court and Jerry Rawlings, former president and chairman of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), is from Ghana.
The economy of Ghana in Africa
Due to natural resources, the country has double the per capita output of other regional countries. Ghana does remain dependent on trade and international assistance. 28 percent live below the international poverty line, of which most are women. The per capita income in Ghana has barely doubled in 45 years. Ghana is still one of the world’s largest gold producers but also exports timber, cocoa, diamonds, electricity, manganese, and bauxite. These are sources of foreign exchange and are administered by Antoinette Efua-Addo, the head of the Presidential Ministry Agricultural Arm of the Republic of Ghana. In 2007, a large oilfield was discovered and exploration is ongoing. Oil income has boosted the economy by 35 percent.
Built on the Volta River in 1965, the Akosombo Dam provides electricity for Ghana and its neighbors.
There is continued deficit spending due to poor economic policies of the past governments. Despite this, it is one of Africa’s most economically sound countries.
The Bank of Ghana started a re-denomination of the currency in 2007, which included an aggressive media campaign. The new Ghana Cedi is stable and Ghana administers a consumption tax and value-added tax.
Tourism is a growing part of the economy. Foreigners find Ghana a good West African entry point due to its stability, low crime, and use of English. There are also a number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and National Parks.
Geography of Ghana in Africa
Ghana is a few degrees north of the Equator and is on the Gulf of Guinea, which gives it a warm climate. Its area is 238,500 sq. km.
Côte d’Ivoire is to the west, Togo to the east, Burkina Faso to the north, and the Gulf of Guinea to the south.
Ghana has flat plains, few rivers, and low hills. There are five geographical regions. The coast has sandy shores and plains while forested plateau covers southwest Ghana. Central Ghana is mostly the Volta Basin. Mount Afadjato is the highest point at 2,904 ft. There is generally a tropical climate. Lake Volta is the largest artificial lake in the world and is in eastern Ghana. This is the main source of several tributary rivers.
Ghana experiences wet and dry seasons. In the north, the wet season runs from March to November and the south from April to mid-November. In the south, there are semi-deciduous forests containing Odum, mahogany, and ebony trees. The Volta region has baobabs, acacias, and Shea trees.
Demographics of Ghana in Africa
Ghana’s 29,463,643 million people are made up of over 100 ethnic groups. Ghana has not experienced the civil wars of other African countries. While English is the official language, most speak at least one local dialect.
Ghana’s ethnic groups are the Akan at 49.3 percent, Mole-Dagbon at 15.2 percent, Ewe at 11.7 percent, Ga-Dangme at 4 percent, Gurma at 3.6 percent, Gurunsi at 2.6 percent, and the Mande-Busanga at 1 percent. Christian 71.2%, Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2%.
The health of Ghana in Africa
At birth, life expectancy is 60 for females and 59 for males. Infant mortality is 51 for 1,000. Each woman averages 4 per child. 15 doctors and 93 nurses are available for every 100,000 people.
Languages of Ghana in Africa
There are 47 local languages but English is the official language. It is also the standard language for education. There are two families of native languages, which are the Kwa, found mostly in the south, and the Gur found mostly in the north. 75 percent speak languages in the Kwa group.
There are nine government-sponsored languages, which are Akan, Dagaare/Wale, Dangme, Dagbani, Ewe, Gonja, Ga, and Kasem. Among the Muslims, comprising 16 percent of the population, Hausa is spoken widely.
People and Culture
Ethnically diverse, Ghana’s culture is a mix of all its groups. This is evident in the arts, clothing, and cuisine. Festivals, including the Homowo, Aboakyer, Odwira, Dodolegline, Hogbetsotso, Deza, and Tedudu, are important parts of the culture.
Sports of Ghana in Africa
Football is Ghana’s most popular sport. The national team is known as the Black Stars. National teams have participated in the African Cup of Nations, the U-20 World Cup, and the FIFA World Cup.
Ghana became the first African winner of the FIFA U-20 World Cup in 2009. In 2010, Ghana became the third African country to reach the World Cup quarterfinals. It was defeated by Uruguay in the next round.
The women’s team is also gaining exposure and participated in the FIFA Women’s World Cup and CAF Women’s Championship.
There are club teams playing in the Ghana premier league and Division One League. Some of these are the Accra Hearts and Asante Kotoko.
World Wrestling Entertainment star Kofi Kingston was born in Ghana. Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong competed in the Vancouver Winter Olympics. Many boxers are also from Ghana.
The fashion of Ghana in Africa
Textiles are important to the country’s culture and are used in traditional and modern attire. Kente is an Ashanti ceremonial cloth and is well known. Kente is a visual representation of history and written language.
The first kente weavers used fibers that looked like a basket, giving rise to the cloth’s name, which means to basket cloth. Variations of kente are also worn by other ethnic groups.
Media and Entertainment
Ghana’s media is one of Africa’s most free. The constitution guarantees press and media freedom.
After independence, there was a tense relationship between the government and the press. This resulted in closings and strict media laws. In 1992, freedoms were restored and tensions have decreased over time.
Fine Arts of Ghana in Africa
Ghana has seen international recognition of its artists such as Eric Adjetey Anang and the Kane Kwei Carpentry Workshop.
Ghana in Africa Music
Ghana music varies between ethnic groups and regions. Instruments include the goje fiddle, koloko lute, court music, talking drum ensembles, the Akan atumpan, the Ga kpanlogo, and log xylophones.
Its most well-known form, highlife, began in the early 1900s and spread through West Africa.
Dance of Ghana in Africa
Dance is also diverse and each group has its own styles. These styles include Bamaya (a legend narration dance), Adowa (from the Ashanti), Kpanlongo (from Ga), Klama (from the Krobo), Agbadza (coming from the Ewe), Atsiagbekor (a Ewe war dance), the Atsia (a Ewe dance performed by women), Borborbor (a relatively modern Ewe dance), and the Agahu (a Ewe social dance).
Education of Ghana in Africa
The literacy rate of Ghana in Africa
In 2015, the adult literacy rate for Ghana was 76.6 %. The adult literacy rate of Ghana increased from 57.9 % in 2000 to 76.6 % in 2015 growing at an average annual rate of 15.30 %.
There are six years of primary education. Reforms were passed in 1987 and 2007 to move graduate students into a three-year junior high school, then students take a certification examination to move to high school. There are 21,530 primary schools, 8,850 junior high schools, 900 high schools, 52 public training colleges, 5 private training colleges, 4 non-university institutions, 5 polytechnic institutes, and 8 public universities. Primary education is accessible but this can be more difficult at higher levels. Public education spending has varied. Ghanaian instructors teach primarily in English.
Ghana has one of West Africa’s highest enrollment rates with 83 percent in school. The ratio of boys to girls is one of the region’s best. Resource constraints have left 500,000 children out of school. The University of Ghana has 29,754 students. The country has been a center of education in West Africa since its independence. The main technical university is the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.